Who Invented the Internet and What Did Al Gore Actually Have to Do With It?

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Who Invented the Internet and What Did Al Gore Actually Have to Do With It?


While the World Wide Web was initially invented
by one person (see: What was the First Website?), the genesis of the internet itself was a group
effort by numerous individuals, sometimes working in concert, and other times independently.
Its birth takes us back to the extremely competitive technological contest between the US and the
USSR during the Cold War. The Soviet Union sent the satellite Sputnik
1 into space on October 4, 1957. Partially in response, the American government created
in 1958 the Advanced Research Project Agency, known today as DARPA—Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency. The agency’s specific mission was to …prevent technological surprises like the
launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space. The
mission statement has evolved over time. Today, DARPA’s mission is still to prevent technological
surprise to the US, but also to create technological surprise for our enemies. To coordinate such efforts, a rapid way to
exchange data between various universities and laboratories was needed. This bring us
to J. C. R. Licklider who is largely responsible for the theoretical basis of the Internet,
an “Intergalactic Computer Network.” His idea was to create a network where many different
computer systems would be interconnected to one another to quickly exchange data, rather
than have individual systems setup, each one connecting to some other individual system. He thought up the idea after having to deal
with three separate systems connecting to computers in Santa Monica, the University
of California, Berkeley, and a system at MIT: For each of these three terminals, I had three
different sets of user commands. So if I was talking online with someone at S.D.C. and
I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley or M.I.T. about this, I had to get up from
the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log into the other terminal and get in touch with them….
I said, oh man, it’s obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought
to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing.
That idea is the ARPAnet.” So, yes, the idea for the internet as we know
it partially came about because of the seemingly universal human desire to not have to get
up and move to another location. With the threat of a nuclear war, it was necessary
to decentralize such a system, so that even if one node was destroyed, there would still
be communication between all the other computers. The American engineer Paul Baran provided
the solution to this issue; he designed a decentralized network that also used packet
switching as a means for sending and receiving data. Many others also contributed to the development
of an efficient packet switching system, including Leonard Kleinrock and Donald Davies. If you’re
not familiar, “packet switching” is basically just a method of breaking down all transmitted
data—regardless of content, type, or structure—into suitably sized blocks, called packets. So,
for instance, if you wanted to access a large file from another system, when you attempted
to download it, rather than the entire file being sent in one stream, which would require
a constant connection for the duration of the download, it would get broken down into
small packets of data, with each packet being individually sent, perhaps taking different
paths through the network. The system that downloads the file would then re-assemble
the packets back into the original full file. The platform mentioned above by Licklider,
ARPANET was based on these ideas and was the principle precursor to the Internet as we
think of it today. It was installed and operated for the first time in 1969 with four nodes,
which were located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of California
at Los Angeles, SRI at Stanford University, and the University of Utah. The first use of this network took place on
October 29, 1969 at 10:30 pm and was a communication between UCLA and the Stanford Research Institute.
As recounted by the aforementioned Leonard Kleinrock, this momentous communiqué went
like this: We set up a telephone connection between us
and the guys at SRI… We typed the L and we asked on the phone, “Do you see the L?”
“Yes, we see the L,” came the response. We typed the O, and we asked, “Do you see
the O.” “Yes, we see the O.” Then we typed the G, and the system crashed…
Yet a revolution had begun. By 1972, the number of computers that were
connected to ARPANET had reached twenty-three and it was at this time that the term electronic
mail (email) was first used, when a computer scientist named Ray Tomlinson implemented
an email system in ARPANET using the “@” symbol to differentiate the sender’s name and network
name in the email address. Alongside these developments, engineers created
more networks, which used different protocols such as X.25 and UUCP. The original protocol
for communication used by the ARPANET was the NCP (Network Control Protocol). The need
for a protocol that would unite all the many networks was needed. In 1974, after many failed attempts, a paper
published by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, also known as “the fathers of the Internet,”
resulted in the protocol TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which by 1978 would become
TCP/IP (with the IP standing for Internet Protocol). At a high level, TCP/IP is essentially
just a relatively efficient system for making sure the packets of data are sent and ultimately
received where they need to go, and in turn assembled in the proper order so that the
downloaded data mirrors the original file. So, for instance, if a packet is lost in transmission,
TCP is the system that detects this and makes sure the missing packet(s) get re-sent and
are successfully received. Developers of applications can then use this system without having to
worry about exactly how the underlying network communication works. On January 1, 1983, “flag day,” TCP/IP
would become the exclusive communication protocol for ARPANET. Also in 1983, Paul Mockapetris proposed a
distributed database of internet name and address pairs, now known as the Domain Name
System (DNS). This is essentially a distributed “phone book” linking a domain’s name
to its IP address, allowing you to type in something like todayifoundout.com, instead
of the IP address of the website. The distributed version of this system allowed for a decentralized
approach to this “phone book.” Previous to this, a central HOSTS.TXT file was maintained
at Stanford Research Institute that then could be downloaded and used by other systems. Of
course, even by 1983, this was becoming a problem to maintain and there was a growing
need for a decentralized approach. This brings us to 1989 when Tim Berners-Lee
of CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) developed a system for distributing
information on the Internet and named it the World Wide Web. What made this system unique from existing
systems of the day was the marriage of the hypertext system (linked pages) with the internet;
particularly the marriage of one directional links that didn’t require any action by
the owner of the destination page to make it work as with bi-directional hypertext systems
of the day. It also provided for relatively simple implementations of web servers and
web browsers and was a completely open platform making it so anyone could contribute and develop
their own such systems without paying any royalties. In the process of doing all this,
Berners-Lee developed the URL format, hypertext markup language (HTML), and the Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Around this same time, one of the most popular
alternatives to the web, the Gopher system, announced it would no longer be free to use,
effectively killing it with many switching to the World Wide Web. Today, the web is so
popular that many people often think of it as the internet, even though this isn’t
the case at all. Also around the time the World Wide Web was
being created, the restrictions on commercial use of the internet were gradually being removed,
which was another key element in the ultimate success of this network. Next up, in 1993, Marc Andreessen led a team
that developed a browser for the World Wide Web, named Mosaic. This was a graphical browser
developed via funding through a U.S. government initiative, specifically the “High Performance
Computing and Communications Act of 1991.″ This act was partially what Al Gore was referring
to when he said he “took the initiative in creating the Internet.” All political
rhetoric aside (and there was much on both sides concerning this statement), as one of
the “fathers of the internet,” Vincent Cerf said, “The Internet would not be where
it is in the United States without the strong support given to it and related research areas
by the Vice President [Al Gore] in his current role and in his earlier role as Senator…
As far back as the 1970s, Congressman Gore promoted the idea of high speed telecommunications
as an engine for both economic growth and the improvement of our educational system.
He was the first elected official to grasp the potential of computer communications to
have a broader impact than just improving the conduct of science and scholarship…
His initiatives led directly to the commercialization of the Internet. So he really does deserve
credit.” (For more on this controversy, see: Did Al Gore Really Say He Invented the
Internet?) As for Mosaic, it was not the first web browser,
as you’ll sometimes read, simply one of the most successful until Netscape came around
(which was developed by many of those who previously worked on Mosaic). The first ever
web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was created by Berners-Lee. This browser had a nice graphical
user interface; allowed for multiple fonts and font sizes; allowed for downloading and
displaying images, sounds, animations, movies, etc.; and had the ability to let users edit
the web pages being viewed in order to promote collaboration of information. However, this
browser only ran on NeXT Step’s OS, which most people didn’t have because of the extreme
high cost of these systems. (This company was owned by Steve Jobs, so you can imagine
the cost bloat… ;-)) In order to provide a browser anyone could
use, the next browser Berners-Lee developed was much simpler and, thus, versions of it
could be quickly developed to be able to run on just about any computer, for the most part
regardless of processing power or operating system. It was a bare-bones inline browser
(command line / text only), which didn’t have most of the features of his original
browser. Mosaic essentially reintroduced some of the
nicer features found in Berners-Lee’s original browser, giving people a graphic interface
to work with. It also included the ability to view web pages with inline images (instead
of in separate windows as other browsers at the time). What really distinguished it from
other such graphical browsers, though, was that it was easy for everyday users to install
and use. The creators also offered 24 hour phone support to help people get it setup
and working on their respective systems. Berners-Lee chose the name “World Wide Web” because
he wanted to emphasize that, in this global hypertext system, anything could link to anything
else. Alternative names he considered were: “Mine of Information” (Moi); “The Information
Mine” (Tim); and “Information Mesh” (which was discarded as it looked too much
like “Information Mess”). Pronouncing “www” as individual letters
“double-u double-u double-u” takes three times as many syllables as simply saying “World
Wide Web.”

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