Fall 2017: The World Wide Web (The Big Picture) for CIS 121 at Portland Community College

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Fall 2017: The World Wide Web (The Big Picture) for CIS 121 at Portland Community College

Fall 2017: The World Wide Web (The Big Picture) for CIS 121 at Portland Community College


>>Hello, this is David
Mandel and I’m a– I’m doing a recording
here on the Wide World Web and on an old overview. We’re not going to
talk about the– your particular assignments. We’re not going to
talk about writing CSS, Cascading Style Sheets. We’re not going to talk about
tables and lists per se. But I want to talk about
where your work fits in to the overall frame. As you see I’m giving this
talk from a kind of a warehouse or a– what used to be an
old marijuana grow house. It’s now a music
studio or my son and I are remaking it
into a music studio. He bought it recently. And so the background is not that beautiful, the
lighting is bad. You see dots coming across
my– dots coming out for– because the lighting is bad. Anyway, ignore that. I think we can do
the video anyway. I’ve got good connection here. I spent a few days–
Well, I spent a little bit of time getting us to
hardwire, so I think we’re– I think everything
is going to be cool. Whoops. OK. So we’re going to talk
about the Wide World Web, the BIG Picture by David Mandel. I think I’ve got an
outline of what I want to talk about over here. The first thing to notice is that the Wide World Web
is not the internet. Some people get confused about
that, especially I know a lot of older people who seem
to think that, you know, if you’ve got Chromium,
you’ve got it all. Well, that’s not quite true. The internet was started long
before the Wide World Web. And the first time– it was–
The internet started about 1969. All it is is a worldwide network
of computers wired together and using all sorts
of different wires and different physical
topologies using a common protocol that– so they can
all talk to one another. And some sort of fancy
elaborate routing system, sometimes static, often
dynamic so that if a portion of the system goes down,
a portion of the network, it gets trapped– gets rerouted
automatically in such a way that all the computers
can talk to one another. The first– One of the first
applications people wanted for the internet for
was of course email, mail was very important,
and then file transfer. In the early days– Well, actually in the early
days before the internet, people started to do email. And if you ever study email,
you’re going to notice that the email protocols,
the email verbiage that we use really
doesn’t fit the internet. That’s because it was
before the internet and they made different
decisions. Sometimes they order
things different than the internet orders things. Then you’ve got to translate
between email vocabulary and internet vocabulary. Another thing people
wanted to do in the early days was
to transfer files. They came up with the
system called UUCP. That is actually–
predates the internet. I used it before we have the
internet but things like email and UUCP, as soon as we got the
internet, people moved those to the internet so they can be
used on the internet as well. There was another file
transfer protocol which we use to this day called FTP. It’s kind of kludgy
but it works very well. And most people don’t even
realize how kludgy it is. Sometimes you’ll want to
log on to different systems like mainframe computers. For that we’ve– for a long
time we’ve used Telnet. Telnet is not really
all that secure. In fact it’s extremely unsecure. So today we’ve kind– and for
the most part we’ve replaced it. But we still use Telnet
for certain things. In the UNIX world, X Windows
displays will actually talk to one another over
the internet. You can move your
desktops over the internet. Windows doesn’t talk X Windows but it does talk
something called Virtual Network Computing. I think it also talks
remote desktop or something. There are ways in the
Windows world move desktops across the internet too. VNC, Virtual Network Computer
is one system that will run on every operating
system I can think of, from Windows to obscure UNIXes. SSH has become a replacement for
things like Telnet as a way– It’s an encrypted protocol
that allows us to communicate between machines in a
rather secure manner, actually a very secure manner. It’s cool. And there’s hundreds of
other protocols that go across the internet, including
HTTP or the Wide World Web. OK. One of the things about
the Wide World Web is it has hyperlinks. Hyperlinks are cool. That means, you know,
a hyperlink is when you go into a webpage. Where is the webpage, pcc.edu. That’s a webpage. And you hit one of these
links and it takes you to a different webpage. And maybe a different
web server, maybe in a different
country across the world, hyperlinks are kind of– You know, that’s what
the internet is kind of about, it’s pretty cool. I suppose we’ve talked about
hyperlinks since the time of the Greek philosophers
or before, but they really, you know, haven’t been a
big deal until recently. The first time I
ever saw hyperlink in the internet was there was
an old system used called Gopher developed by the
University of Minnesota that it was the coolest
thing in the world. All you could do is
alphanumeric articles, no graphics, nothing like that. But you could have these
little links in your articles. You press on that link
and it would take you to another server
with another article. You might be in University of
Minnesota with the first article and the next one
be at Florida State and you’re sitting in Oregon. It was cool. OK. Well, you know, it–
actually it was very cool. I mean– and it’s–
Yeah, it is cool. Now, there were only– I don’t
know if there were ever more than a couple hundred Gopher
servers that weren’t– Gopher was not big like the
Wide World Web but Gopher was, you know, I– it was
significant and it really– a lot of us learned
a lot from Gopher. At the same time, I will say
there was a guy that was trying to do some of these with kind
of hyperlinks or shared– where people could
share a document and everybody could edit
on the same document or something like that. And they– he was working
in Portland, Oregon, a man by the name
of Ward Cunningham, and always reminds
me of happy days, but this is a different
Ward Cunningham. He’s about my age,
he lives in Portland. And he developed this kind
of idea and he went to Hawaii and he learned a little
Hawaiian and in Hawaiian they– there’s this word called wiki. So he called his
concepts the wiki. And it was kind of
a management concept but there was technology
behind it. And, you know, he didn’t know
quite how to implement it but he was working on
this thing called wiki. And then the Wide
World Web came along. Tim Berners-Lee out of CERN
Institute in Switzerland, although Tim Berners-Lee
himself is a British citizen, Tim Berners-Lee developed
the wide– World Wide Web that
had these hyperlinks. It had really cool stuff and he
developed something called HTML to make the whole thing
work and it was really cool. When Ward saw– the Ward– When he was introduced
to the World Wide Web– Wide World Web or whatever– he
immediately says this is the way of the future and he wrote
the first wiki website, which I think is at c3.org
or something like that. Anyway, he wrote some
software that made the first– It would generate all
the HTML and everything and you would have a wiki
that you could enter text on. It was cool. And then of course people
like Jamie Cameron came along and used words, ideas to start
Wikipedia, wiki this, wiki that. Wiki, well, you know, we’ve
got wiki websites every place. And we’ve got World Wide
Web websites every place. Even banks have websites. I mean, OK, enough said. I mean it’s– And it’s
cool because it’s based on these hyperlinks and
various other things. But really the hyperlinks,
that’s really cool. OK. It is a little
kludgy, and we’ll talk about how it’s kludgy
as we go on. But anyway, we can
see things on a wide– World Wide Web using
a web browser like– Well, this one is
called Chromium. And, you know, you
can go on there. And this is kind of cool. There’s pictures. There’s– You press things
and it brings up information about class schedules and– I
don’t know, you can do email over the– in, you
know, on a website. [Inaudible] about PCC. I could go– Yeah, it’s cool. I can look up information
using things like Wikipedia. Oops, that just went to
Google which does a search of the whole network and
internet and finds me Wikipedia. I want– Oh my. There’s English. There’s German. There is a lot of
languages, Malay. Well, Malay is in
there some place but– And, you know, and
you got hyperlinks. Queen Isabella or Isabella
of– I don’t know who she is. I think I heard about her
the other day, son of John. OK. And you can look things up
that you never knew you wanted to know, like who Isabella is. OK, that’s cool. So, we go back here and
we’re going to– that– OK, and we’re going to
talk about web browsers. When you’re– when you are using
the web, you use a web browser. But there’s really a couple
different parts to the web. There are web browsers. That’s the thing you use
when you look at the web. But then there’s got to
be a computer someplace that spits data out and
gives it to the web browser. Some place way off in Never
Never Land, there is a computer that will be spitting data out. So, the job of a web browser–
and that’s called a web server. Now the job of a web browser
is to basically get this page of information, render
it so it looks pretty. Now I just said that the world– the Wide World Web
is kind of kludgy. It should be that we get
an html page, render it and it looks beautiful and,
you know, life is cool. And the HTML can do anything
you want it to do that seems like it’s world wide– world–
wide world webby in some sense. It doesn’t work. We just didn’t do it right. Tim Berners-Lee didn’t
do it right. And Tim Berners-Lee
is a brilliant man. As I say, he’s British. He has been knighted. He is Sir Tim Berners-Lee. But he had something
much more modest in mind. He didn’t really
envision us doing banking and ordering things from Amazon
or Harbor Freight or wherever. That wasn’t really what
he was thinking of. He was thinking of Gopher and
saying, can I do Gopher better. So, there’s a lot of things
you can’t do using HTML. So people added something
called Java Script, which was a programming–
which was– which is a programming
language that is built in to most web servers. Most web servers can understand
JavaScript and it will modify and do cool things on your– in making your website look
cool that HTML can’t do. And then somebody else came
up with the idea there’s a– JavaScript is too complicated. We can do it using–
well, we’ll– we’ll use a different
syntax here. We’ll call it Cascading
Style Sheets. So there is HTML and there
are Cascading Style Sheets that can modify the HTML and
they’re two different languages but they kind of work
together and you kind of have to know both of them. But it– I would call it a
kludge but, you know, it works. And then you can add
JavaScript into this whole thing and most browsers
can understand HTML and Cascading Style
Sheets and JavaScript. And the truth is there is a– yet another language
called Java. Java, strange to say, is totally and completely unrelated
to JavaScript. There is no relationship
between the two. They’re both programming
languages. They’re different
programming languages. Most or many of the web browsers
have Java virtual machines built into them and they
can run Java code, as well as JavaScript code, as
well as CSS, as well as HTML. OK. And that’s all done
on your client computer in your web browser. What, you know, what’s the
name of a few web browsers? Well, Mosaic was the first
web browser I ever used, first graphical web
browser I ever used. I don’t know if it
exists anymore. There was one called Netscape
for a long, long time. I think it’s kind
of become Chromium, only Chromium is a total
rewrite of Netscape. It’s much better than
Netscape ever was. Firefox but– Well,
Chromium is by who? By Google. Firefox is by the
Mozilla Foundation. Safari, Internet Explorer is
an older one by Microsoft. They now use Edge. Konqueror is another. There is a lot of them. And the– actually, I’m forgetting some
of the good ones. So there’s a lot of them. But most of us probably
use Chromium, Firefox or Edge, I suspect. I don’t know. Those– the job of those
once again is to take all that information that is
given to the web browser. It’s first to go to a website
and say give me information, then it takes all the
information it gets from that website and it
renders in a pleasing manner. I wish they all rendered
things the same. The truth is there’s
little tiny differences between the way they
will render things. And now and then it
will get you goofed up so you write JavaScript
that works fine in Chromium and it doesn’t quite
work in Edge. We’re getting better and better
but we still have some problems. OK. So what’s a web server? I talked about web servers. Web server is the
other end of the thing. It is where people put
their HTML and the job of the web server is to– OK. I don’t know what
a web server is. Is it a computer or is it
a computer application? We use the term web
server for both. A web server really is just
simply a piece of software that is always running every
second a computer is up. It’s listening on a certain port
on the internet for a request that says send me
this HTML page. And if it gets a request, all it
does is it takes your HTML page and maybe the associated
CSS file, a little JavaScript,
a little Java. I don’t know, all of that
gunk, and just ships it down to the web browser. It’s a very easy job. It doesn’t have to
do any thinking. It just sends it all
down to the browser. The browser does all the
hard work of rendering that and making sense of it. OK. Sometimes we use the term
web server for the computer that is running the
red web server program. Other times we use the
term web server just for the program that
is being run. Most web servers really 90,
85% of what they do is just to run the web server program and a few associated
programs, and that’s about it. It’s a very easy job, I think. There’s a lot of web servers in
the world but I think about 70% of the world’s websites are run by an open source web
server called Apache. Apache is a really cool,
really good web server that will do almost anything
for you and is pretty secure. Well, not perfect but it did– well, Apache is an
incredible web server. There are other web servers but
Apache is really the main one that most commercial people use. And a lot of the other web
servers are sometimes– I sometimes use web
servers that are not Apache but then I run the web
server on my local computer, it prepares stuff and
then it ships it off where Apache sends
it to the public. So Apache is being used as something we call
a proxy server. So– oh, I guess some
people use Squid. Well, Squid is another
proxy server but we do use– Apache serves a lot
of the world. Apache is really
important as a web server. OK. I said this was a simple
job, being a web server, nothing complicated about it. Well, I lied. It can be a simple job if
you have static webpages that is just plain HTML. There’s not a lot to do. But even then it gets a
little bit complicated because a web server may
actually be serving 15, 20 different– a
hundred different sites. The same web server may
be serving davidmandel.com and janeausten.com
and pdxlinux.org. That can all be served
by the same web server and Apache has got to
keep all that separate and know whether the request
was for davidmandel.com or janeausten.com and
get all that separate. The other thing though is most
webpages actually are not plain and simple HTML. I guess we’re learning
to write plain, simple HTML because
that is step 1. Learn to write HTML
and learn to write CSS. However, most websites
are actually kind of built by a program and there’ll be
a program in the background that is running a software that
is maybe accessing a database and this software is written
in a Perl or Python or PHP. Often PHP because
PHP is also written by the Mozilla Foundation,
the people– oh no, I’m sorry, by the Apache Foundation. The people that do
the Apache web server. But you can use most
any language and a lot of people do use Perl,
Python, Ruby, TCL, what– list. I don’t know. Any language will work. C, Fortran, it– yeah, most any
language but– and what that– those languages will
do those programs– in the background on the web
server is suppose you get a request for a webpage
and the request comes in and says something about my
name is David Mandel and I want to know how much money is in
my bank account right now, OK. Well, there is no page
there saying you’ve got $5 in your bank account,
$5 and 5 cents, OK. Instead, there is a
program that goes off, goes into the bank’s database
say, hey, gets out the number of $5 and 5 cents on a good
day so then it shoots off to the weather forecast at
the national weather site and says this is a
good day or a bad day. The forecast says this is a good
day, so you do really have $5 and 5 cents if the moon
is in the proper phase, so it’s got to go out to
the NASA database to find out what phase the moon is in. And it all comes
back and it says that after all these
calculations, I’ve got $3 and 25 cents in my bank account. The program then mashes
together lots of HTML that probably some HTML
coder wrote and it puts in $3 and 24 cents in the
right slot in this HTML. It points it down
on to the system. That gets sent out as a webpage. So, the webpages are
very, very dynamic. They’re not the simple type ones
that we’re writing every day but they’re calculated
on the fly. However, in order to make these
webpages calculated on the fly, somebody needs to know how to
write HTML and how to write CSS and how to write the
Python code or PHP code that did all these other stuff. So a web server can be–
actually be very, very complex, as complex as a web browser. But there are two
different pieces of software. They are both very complex. There’s the web server,
there’s the web browser. Now things still get a
little more complicated because these are
riding on the internet. How in the world does
the web browser know where to make the request to? There is a lot of
internet servers on– or a lot of the web
servers on the internet. There’s web servers in a– you
know, 185 different countries. There is a– I wouldn’t
be surprised if there’s 12 web servers in
my office, and maybe more. There’s a lot of web
servers in the world. OK. So how in the world
do I find out which ones? Well, that’s got something
to do with the internet and the way the internet works. And, you know, something called
domain name registration– domain name service, DNS and– well, the first thing
is suppose I want to have a name davidmandel.com. I would have to register
davidmandel.com at some official site to
make me an official part of the internet. The way– and the way I
would do that is I would go– There’s a consortium called
the International Consortium of Assigned Names
and Numbers, ICANN. And they have this huge
bureaucracy that says who can make up domain name– new domain names and register
them and how they get registered and things of that type. And down at some
level, some company like in the United States
or for .coms, .orgs, .nets and a few other
dots, a company like– a domain name registration
company like say GoDaddy or Network Solutions or Easyspace or–
can do that for you. They are officially registered
to be a domain name register. And so I sign up with them
and I get my domain name. This is not a web server,
this is not anything else, but I get my domain name
for, you know, I don’t know, $10 a year, $20 a year, it
depends on where I go because, you know, they all
vary in price. It also depends. I think a .org is a little less
or a little more than a .com. So I– But usually
it’s 10, 20, $30. $30 a year is outrageous,
but 10, 20, $30 a year. If I get– yeah, and that’s
kind of the way it works. Suppose I want a–
a davidmandel.com. That must be a great domain
name for David Mandel. So, yeah, maybe I want that. How do I know if I can get it? Well, if I go to
something like GoDaddy– This is not an endorsement
for GoDaddy, but I use them for half my sites or more. I use various domain
name registrars but, yeah, GoDaddy is fine. And I type in David Mandel. OK, let’s search. Well, maybe .com. Yeah, I– OK. Here is an example
of what I said. I typed in David Mandel. It’s got to give me back a lot
of HTML and JavaScript and CSS that will render
on these graphics. But, you know, it’s giving
me things about David Mandel. So in other words, in the
background, at GoDaddy, on their web servers or their
infrastructure behind their web servers, they have all sorts
of programs running that look in databases that can
tell you whether go– davidmandel.com is taken
and maybe get some new names and find out whether
they are taken. And then it forms a new
webpage and sends it to me. If I was looking
for nancymandel.com, it would give me a
different webpage. So, you know, the HTML type
information being shot back is calculated on the fly. OK. It says here that
davidmandel.com is taken. Yeah, yeah, but I could
get davidmandel.us. I could get– All of
these others I could get. Can I get davidmandel.de? Well, davidmandel.de is a
German name or– that’s a– .de’s are German or
.my’s are Malaysian or .sg’s are Singaporean, .va’s
are Vatican City, I think. I’m not sure. And it turns out that I would
have to go to those countries and I’d have to figure
out what system they use for assigning domain names. I can’t– GoDaddy
won’t handle them. Actually, I think to get
a .de or a .fr for France, I think I have to be living
in Europe in a common part of the European Union
as I recall. The last time I got names
there, I had a colleague, a business partner that
was living in Latvia. For .uk, English
names anybody can get. So, it depends on the country. OK. And then davidmandel.com,
some guy took it. How do I know who took it? Well, in UNIX, in UNIX
there is a command– or Linux or I guess that
would be Macintosh as well, OS X, X or XI or whatever. There will be a command who
is– if it’s not on your system, you can get it, it’s
open source, download it and, you know. And so there will
be a command whois. So let’s– Actually, somebody
already typed in whois. But they typed in this one. Let’s type in whois
davidmandel.com. And it gives me a lot of
information and that includes– It says davidmandel.com is– The domain name registrar
is GoDaddy. It was created in 1999. It is– It expires in 2021
unless he pays more money, or she. There is a couple
registrar information things like if you’re– do something
abusive or– There is ICANN. Here is the DNS used– That
doesn’t tell me who owns it. I would have to use some
flags on the command to find out who owns it. But let’s go with this one. I think this one may
tell me who owns it. Let’s– what was I looking at? Pdxlinux.org. OK. Sometimes the whois
will tell me who owns, I mean all sorts of things. It really should tell me that but like GoDaddy has
been getting teensier on the information
they get back. There are flags that I
can set on my command and then it will give me full
information, but I don’t want to spend the time to look
at what flags I have to use. But here we see for
pdxlinux.org, we see the same sort
of information. If I wait until 2018 and this
guy is– the owner is sleeping, I may be able to
steal that from him. That would be a nasty
thing to do. And the owner of this
domain will not be sleeping. OK. It says here the
registry registrant or the registrant
name is David Mandel with the Portland
Linux/Unix Group. And this is the address
of record. Surprisingly that’s
where I live. And that’s his email
address and various things. So if I wanted to buy that
domain, I’d contact that person. Now some domains
are held in proxy where they hide all
that information. I do not approve
of using proxies to hide that information. I think that’s a little bit–
It’s not grossly unethical but I think you–
if you own a domain, you should take responsibility
for the domain, unless you’re maybe a
political dissident or somebody who has a good reason to
want to hide your identity. I have nothing against people– you know, if I’m running a
site saying downwithchina.com and I’m Chinese, maybe I
have a good reason not to– or downwiththechinese
government.com. Maybe I have a good reason to
want to hide my name and not– and use a proxy because,
you know, I don’t want to be arrested and, yeah. So I– but for most
of us, it’s shoddy not to take responsibility for
what we do, so you know. I got another one up
here called calagator.com or dot– calagator.org. If you’re not familiar
with this website, look up. Use your web browser
to go to calagator.org. It’s a calendar of events, mostly open source events
in the Portland area. It’s kind of a wiki calendar. It’s cool and almost all
these events are free, the majority of them. And Portland is a center
of open source software and we have a wonderful
calendar of events. Any night of the week you can– you’ve got the choice of half a
dozen or more events to go to. You could never go
to all of them. It’s cool. OK, going back to our talk here. Oops. Oh, and if you don’t
have the whois command, I think it exists
for Windows too. I think I’ve had it on
my Windows computers. But if you don’t have
the whois command, there are whoises built
into– on the web. Maybe GoDaddy has a whois
as part of their website. Or a lot of domain name
people do have whois commands as part of their website. I prefer to use a whois
command that looks directly at the whois database because
I’m always– I have heard. There are unethical
people in the world. I have heard from reliable
sources of domain name registers that provide whois access. This happened years ago. There was a company or
more than one who sometimes when you were looking up the– to see if a domain
name was available, they would capture
your information and they would then go out and buy the domain
before you can buy it so they could resell it to you. How much does a domain name
cost in general if you want to buy an existing one? It varies. I’ve heard a beer.com one
sold for a million dollars. It’s not worth a million
dollars, not in today’s market. I– the most expensive domain
I’ve ever bought was $6200 for open dot– let
me– was $6200. I won’t say what I spent–
what I bought exactly for that. I’ve seen them sell for millions
of dollars of worthless paper. One in particular I
remember very well for a quarter million dollars. I’ve also seen them sell
for 50 or a hundred dollars or given away, so– and
that’s probably more common. Most of them are probably
a couple hundred dollars. I’ve always got offers to buy
davidmandel.com, which I do own. I don’t have a website
on it but I own it and I use the email address. And I’ve never been
willing to sell it– it’s other David Mandels
would like to buy it from me and I’ve never been
willing to sell it because– I’ve never negotiated but I
would require a lot of money because I have to
redo so many things. It really would cost me a lot
of money to change domain names. And I’ve got other domains I
could go to but it’d be a lot of work and, you know, I
don’t want to do it, so. Developing websites. Well, one way to
develop websites is to do it locally
on your computer. If all you’re doing is static
HTML and Cascading Style Sheets, you can just do it
on your computer and point the web
browser to those files and they will render perfectly. And there’s no problem and
it’s simple and it’s easy and you can develop your
webpages using a text process or like Emax or NotePad
or whatever and test them on your computer. And someday if you like them and
you get access to a web server, you point them over
there and they will– the whole world can see them. Or if you want fancier
environment to work with, you can work with– Apple has
a program called Dreamweaver, which is kind of a what you
see is what you get type system for developing webpages
or websites. And actually you
could use [inaudible] but I don’t recommend that. That’s not what it’s made for. Microsoft has one
called FrontPage. I do not recommend FrontPage. At least when I used to
use FrontPage, it’s– it doesn’t play well with
other company’s products. Dreamweaver does. It’s a good product. Microsoft makes a
lot of good products. They make a few bad products. I consider FrontPage
to be one of those. Unless it’s improved a great
deal since I’ve used it. Or you can develop your webpages
on the web server itself, that’s usually what I do. But then I’ve usually got
my own web server, so– and if I don’t, well, I
can put on a web server on one of my computers. The web server– and if
you’ve got a dynamic site that has programming and has
databases in the backend and all that sort of stuff, you
really have to do it on a running web server because
there’s no way you could develop that on your own
computer because you got to access all these
other stuff as you go. So, in that case you would do
the development on a web server and that can vary– the difficulty, that
can vary a great deal. If you got full access
to everything like I generally have, you
know, the web server may be on the computer system in
front of me and it’s not bad. If you got to go through a
lot of bureaucracy to deal with the web service–
web server people, it can be a real pain. In my case, it’s
generally been pretty easy. There’s also another
system of developing things on a web server that I would
call content management system. Content management systems
are ready made software that you can then
modify and configure, that will do incredible things
just out of the package. Usually they’re not totally
appropriate so you may have to modify them a little bit. And the names of a few of these
are– I only say Wikimedia, I– But that’s the name
of corporation, nonprofit corporation. But MediaWiki is the
software that Wikipedia uses. That the– Wikipedia uses
software called MediaWiki. That is open software. I’ve set up quite
a few wiki sites. Well, a few wiki sites
using a MediaWiki. I’ve also used Tiki Wiki
and several other wikis. There’s a lot of wiki software. Another content management
package that’s quite popular for building websites
is called Drupal. There’s a lot of
Oregonians use Drupal for one reason or another. Another one is called Joomla! It’s spelled with
an exclamation mark. Joomla! is– originally
have the name Mambo but the Mambo people
got into a big fight. So the Mambo people went that
direction and what was left of the core developers Joomla! went the other direction. And you know, the Joomla! people I know come out of Canada
like Montreal or something. They are French Canadian
for the most part. But they’ve got a lot
but worldwide group of people developing Joomla! I think the Mambo people are
Australians, but I don’t know. Another package of
that type is WordPress. Now WordPress, WordPress.com
is a word– is a website that will let–
that will give you where– WordPress websites that you
can do your own thing with, you can write your own webs or– you can write your own WordPress
websites at WordPress.com. But if you want to build your
own server, you can also do that using the WordPress
software because it’s open source,
written in PHP I think. I don’t remember. OpenACS. OpenACS
isn’t used that much. I mean it’s used enough
that it exists and it’s– but I put it on the list here. It’s written in TC– a
programming language called TCL. It’s not utterly popular,
but it’s popular enough that it’s 20 years old. It’s written by–
or it’s founded– the head people behind
that are– come from Portland so I
put it on because it’s a– it’s an Oregonian–
Oregon product. Plone Zope. I put this on because
it’s one of my favorites. It’s written in Python
and it’s cool. You can do anything with
it but it’s hard to use. It’s written mostly by a German
group combined with a group in the East Coast of the
US, like the Sloan School of Business and I don’t
know where that is but– It’s a really cool thing. It is complicated. It even comes– it comes with its own database
management system. It comes with its own web
server and then you usually– you use their database in
combination with other databases like Postgres or MySQL or
you better know other ones. And you use their web server
which is cool but it’s not that secure so you use Apache as a proxy service
for their web server. And everything works out great. It really is a good
system but it is complex. There’s one called Moodle. Moodle is a lot like Blackboard,
only it’s open source. And a lot of schools use Moodle. Oregon State University
uses some Moodle. A lot of schools use Moodle. Blackboard is a commercial
product. It’s the first commercial
product that I put down here. It’s proprietary. And, you know, it’s a
learning system for schools but it’s also a content
management system. And of course there’s
our friend, Desire2Learn, which is also highly
proprietary and, you know. And there’s about
a million more. And there’s even a list of
them on Wikipedia at this site. There, a list of them. This is the most complete list
I know of but there is thousands that are not on this list. But you’ll see there’s Java
based ones, Java package. Well, Java based ones, Microsoft
.net ones, Perl based ones. There’s TWiki. PHP based ones. Most all of these
are open source. Django is a pretty popular one. Python based ones,
Ruby on Rails ones, ColdFusion ones,
JavaScript ones. And OpenACS, which
is other, TCL. And then there’s
proprietary systems, and there’s hundreds of those. So, you know, take
what you want. OK. I’m going to start to close
up here but I’m going to close up a little bit here with
just one final discussion on web browsers, a little
more on web browsers. What I talked about for
web browsers were the– what I call graphical
web browsers. There are ones like
we use every day. They are like our good friend
here, Mozilla or Firefox. And you know, you can do
pretty cool things here. You can do YouTube and, you
know, it’s– looks pretty cool. What is that? Shotgun shell, wow. Oh god, I wouldn’t
want to do that. How to– Hugelkultur,
the Amazing Grow Method. That would be worth watching. That’s a cool way
to grow raised beds. Anyway, you know, you
can get web browsers that will [background music]
even show movies, which is cool. And these are all very
graphical in nature, right? That’s graphical. OK. The other type of web
browser that exists though is that there are a number of
command line web browsers. Only a UNIX person
would like this. I don’t– I don’t know
what the– well, you– are they good for anything? They’re weird, but there are
a number of web browsers now. Some of them they don’t–
They don’t do graphics. They don’t– Some of them
don’t interpret JavaScript. They don’t interpret–
Well, Java. They may not– they– CSS is worthless to them because
they’re not rendering things that well, but they’re
command line browsers. Let’s take a little
look at one of them. So– Come on. Well, maybe
it’s out there. Well, here, we’ll go here. Lynx is one of these. Curl is another one. Wget is one. There’s probably
a lot of others. I’ve used all three of these. Let’s look at a website,
www dot– at google.com is nice because
it’s a very simple website. Let’s look at that website
and see what we get. Oh, it– It asked me whether
I want to allow a cookie. What a cookie is a cookie is
something that the system puts on to your computer so
it can then ask whether– ask you things about
your computer so it– so, you know, suppose I log on
to a website as David Mandel. It may want to put a cookie on my thing saying I
am David Mandel so that when it gets a new page
from me, it can say, oh, that’s David Mandel, so I
will get his bank account. So, it helps them keep track of
sessions for individual users. And it can do bad things
too but it does a lot of good thing so we allow them. I’m going to say always. Usually I just say yes but I
know there’s going to be a lot of requests so I’m going
to say A for always. OK. And here is a– Does that
look anything like Google looks? I don’t know. Now unfortunately Google
doesn’t always look the same to everybody. This is what’s, you
know, becoming weird about the web is Google–
This is Google here on mine. It gives me this thing and it
gives me a question in French. French, terrific. My French is not very good. Oops. I just had a light
fall down and I’m not going to bother picking it up. Anyway– but Google– one
of the things that a lot of websites do is they ask you
what web browser you’re using and they’ll give
you a different, slightly different
page depending on what web browser
you’re using. So what I look up in Chromium– when I look up Google
in Chromium, it may be a little bit different
than when I look it up in Lynx. There it– you know, well, I
had to go around in circles because of the fact
that I’m using Chromium. It would have been easier if I’ve shown this using
Firefox but that’s OK. OK. And you see here, well,
in a way I get something where I can do a search. Let me go down here
and I’m going to do a search in this browser. OK. Search for gardens
of Normandy. Now this is pretty
weird and you already– I’m sure you’re going to ask
why would anyone ever want to do this. OK. It brings up the
search of the gardens of Normandy, I believe. Let me go down here and
just see what I’ve got here. It didn’t give me
the gardens, did it? It’s giving me something else. It’s giving me stuff–
information about Google. Let’s get out, let’s
try it again. Sorry. Always. Gardens of Normandy. There we go. And this is parks and
gardens of Normandy. Let me go over here
and look at this. And here it’s going to ask why
in the heck would I ever use one of these browser– one of
these nongraphical browsers. And I’m about to answer that. And as soon as we get an
idea that we’re getting kind of the same sort of information,
there are the parks and gardens of Normandy, tourism, France. If I go back to the other–
the Lynx web browser instead of the Chromium one, I get parks
and gardens of Normandy, France. And if I look down here, I will see that I have pretty
much the same information that I get with the– with
the graphical browser. I’d never want to
use this browser. I’ve used it at times when I’ve
had very, very slow internet. It’s, you know, and I want to
just forget all the graphics and just try to get anything
through like if I’m talking to something on the moon. I’ve never talked to anything
on the moon but, you know. Sometimes your bandwidth
is pretty pathetic. I have talked to things under
the ocean and that’s a case where your bandwidth can
be pretty bad although it’s improved over the years. In any case, you
might want to use it in a little bandwidth situation. But where you really want
to use these graphical web– or nongraphical web browsers
is when you’re writing scripts that you want to automate
tasks over the internet. Suppose I’m trying to find every
site on the internet that talks about the gardens of
southwestern Iran. And well, I’d Google for that. But suppose I don’t have
Google or for some reason. I would then try
to write a script that would automatically
go through, get every website I could ever
dream of getting and search for gardens of southwestern
Iran. And if it finds it, yes, it
keeps the name of that website and it gives– it sends that–
sends me an email saying look at that website,
look at this website or something of that type. And it does all that in the
background because it’s going to take days, maybe
months for that to run. And so I don’t want
to sit there doing that with a graphical
web browser but I can do that with my own– but
I can write a program that automates all that. And to do that, either I’ve got to write my own web browser
using sockets and using a lot of network type stuff in say C, or else I can do it
using scripting languages by using some of these
nongraphical web browsers. And these are very, very
handy for us programmers. We use a lot– I use
them quite a lot. I can even make them
where they can log. They can send a username
and a password and log on to a site and look at a site. So, as an example, I can do
something like I have it– I’m a member of a
time-share system. I haven’t but I could write a
program that every so often, like every five minutes goes–
logs on to the time-share system and says is this
apartment available? If so book it twenty-four
hours a day seven days a week. And thus I could get apartments
that other people can’t get because they’re never available. But if they’re available,
I will get it. Or, you know, the same way
that eBay, when you’re on eBay, what– you can set
a price and a time so that it will escalate your
price to a certain point. Well, you can write that
sort of thing yourself by using these graphical or
nongraphical web browsers. One final thing I’m
going to mention is who all owns web servers? Web servers, you know,
big companies have these in the backrooms of big
places and there’s billions of web servers in a
web farm in Redmond, Oregon or Google has a farm
in– out of the [inaudible]. But there are amazing
things like– Where– and [inaudible]
did it go. Sorry, sorry, I didn’t
mean that. This little box. This is a network extender. It extends the– it
extends my wireless network. It’s a NETGEAR wireless
extender. Or maybe it could be a wireless
access point or guess what, that is probably a Linux box. I don’t really know. Running an ARM chip
because it’s cheap. And how do I access that? It says right here that
I access that by going to http://10.10.0.1 or
something like that. Guess what, that’s because
it’s got a web server built in. A lot of our tools
and instruments, these little dumb things like
this have web servers built in that’s why I can
say, oh, I’ve got 10 or 15 web servers in my office. And I’m not even
counting my big– the web servers that I’ve
developed as part of, you know, part of what I do. We’ve got web servers
every place. Your phone may have one. My phone does not have a web
server on it but it could. It’s– No reason I couldn’t
put a web server on it. I just don’t know why I’d
want to at the moment. I could think of a reason. Maybe it will have a
web server tomorrow. Anyway, these things are
very common web servers and web browsers. So, I have spent quite a bit
of time making this video. And if you’ve listened
to it, you spent a lot of time listening to me talk. But that, you know, gives you an
idea what all of these is about and what your– If
you’re doing assignments 3 and 4 you’re just– you’re
basically doing everything on your own local
computer, learning how to write what I’d call
simple static websites. And that’s a valuable
tool that fits in to this whole
entire framework. And as you go on in your
studies and your career, you will learn more about this. It takes a long time to
learn a lot about this. But that’s where we’re at and
where we’re going and with that, you know, thank you very much. Bye-bye.

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